Marine resources are culturally and economically vital to The Bahamas and other small island developing states. Species including Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), queen conch (Lobatus gigas), Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) along with other fish and invertebrate species are sold both locally and to international markets. Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing coupled with inadequate regulations and enforcement are the main factors contributing to the decline of Bahamian fisheries along with other anthropogenic impacts. Using case studies of economically and ecologically important species, we highlight conservation successes, knowledge gaps and deficiencies in existing management approaches. Ultimately by enhancing conservation management strategies for traditional and emerging fisheries, biodiversity loss can be mitigated, and ecosystem services can be improved for the benefit of the people of The Bahamas.